MEDLINE Abstracts: Grapefruit Juice and Drug Interactions

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´╗┐MEDLINE Abstracts: Grapefruit Juice and Drug Interactions
What's new concerning grapefruit juice-drug interactions? Find out in this easy-to-navigate collection of recent MEDLINE abstracts compiled by the editors at Medscape Pharmacotherapy.

Ho PC, Chalcroft SC, Coville PF, Wanwimolruk S
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999 Jul;55(5):393-8

Objective: As quinine is mainly metabolised by human liver CYP3A4 and grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of quinine following a single oral dose of 600 mg quinine sulphate was investigated.
Methods: The study was carried out in ten healthy volunteers using a randomised cross-over design. Subjects were studied on three occasions, with a washout period of 2 weeks. During each period, subjects received a pretreatment of 200 ml orange juice (control), full-strength grapefruit juice or half-strength grapefruit juice twice daily for 5 days. On day 6, the subjects were given a single oral dose of 600 mg quinine sulphate with 200 ml of one of the juices. Plasma and urine samples for measurement of quinine and its major metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine, were collected over a 48-h period and analysed by means of a high-performance liquid chromatography method.
Results: The intake of grapefruit juice did not significantly alter the oral pharmacokinetics of quinine. There were no significant differences among the three treatment periods with regard to pharmacokinetic parameters of quinine, including the peak plasma drug concentration (Cmax), the time to reach Cmax (tmax), the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2), the area under the concentration-time curve and the apparent oral clearance. The pharmacokinetics of the 3-hydroxyquinine metabolite were slightly changed when volunteers received grapefruit juice. The mean Cmax of the metabolite (0.25+/-0.09 mg l(-1), mean +/- SD) while subjects received full-strength grapefruit juice was significantly less than during the control period (0.31+/-0.06 mg l(-1), P < 0.05) and during the intake of half-strength grapefruit juice (0.31+/-0.07 mg l(-1), P < 0.05).
Conclusion: These results suggest that there is no significant interaction between the parent compound quinine and grapefruit juice, so it is not necessary to advise patients against ingesting grapefruit juice at the same time that they take quinine. Since quinine is a low clearance drug with a relatively high oral bioavailability, and is primarily metabolised by human liver CYP3A4, the lack of effect of grapefruit juice on quinine pharmacokinetics supports the view that the site of CYP inhibition by grapefruit juice is mainly in the gut.

Edwards DJ, Fitzsimmons ME, Schuetz EG, Yasuda K, Ducharme MP, Warbasse LH, Woster PM, Schuetz JD, Watkins P
Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999 Mar;65(3):237-44

Background: 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin is a furanocoumarin that inhibits CYP3A4 and is found in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice. Grapefruit juice increases the oral bioavailability of many CYP3A4 substrates, including cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin), but intestinal P-glycoprotein may be a more important determinant of cyclosporine availability.
Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin to the effects of grapefruit juice on cyclosporine disposition and to assess the role of CYP3A4 versus P-glycoprotein in this interaction.
Methods: The disposition of oral cyclosporine was compared in healthy subjects after ingestion of water, grapefruit juice, and Seville orange juice. Enterocyte concentrations of CYP3A4 were measured in 2 individuals before and after treatment with Seville orange juice. The effect of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin on P-glycoprotein was assessed in vitro.
Results: Area under the whole blood concentration-time curve and peak concentration of cyclosporine were increased by 55% and 35%, respectively, with grapefruit juice (P < .05). Seville orange juice had no influence on cyclosporine disposition but reduced enterocyte concentrations of CYP3A4 by an average of 40%. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin did not inhibit P-glycoprotein at concentrations up to 50 micromol/L.
Conclusions: 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin is not responsible for the effects of grapefruit juice on cyclosporine. Because the interaction did not occur with Seville orange juice despite reduced enterocyte concentrations of CYP3A4, inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity by other compounds in grapefruit juice may be responsible. Reduced enterocyte CYP3A4 by 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin could be important for other drugs whose bioavailability is less dependent on P-glycoprotein.

Hshimoto K, Shirafuji T, Sekino H, Matsuoka O, Sekino H, Onnagawa O, Okamoto T, Kudo S, Azuma J
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998 Nov-Dec;54(9-10):753-60

Objectives: The study was conducted to investigate whether oral co-administration with citrus juices significantly affects the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of pranidipine, a new 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, in healthy male subjects. Grapefruit juice and orange juice, which were both commercially available, were used in this study.
Mehods: Sixteen healthy male Japanese subjects participated in this study and were divided into two groups for grapefruit juice and orange juice treatment. The study followed an open-labelled crossover design, comparing the effects of a single oral dose of 2 mg pranidipine taken together with 250 ml citrus juice or 250 ml water. Serum pharmacokinetics of pranidipine, adverse reactions, blood pressure, heart rate, 12-lead ECG, haematology, clinical chemistry and urinalysis were measured throughout the study.
Results: For grapefruit juice, mean Cmax and AUC0-24 h were significantly higher than those of water (P=0.0003 and 0.0005, respectively, ANOVA) with the ratios of log transformed values being 1.50 and 1.74, respectively. There were no differences in tmax and t1/2 between the juice and water treatments. A significant increase in heart rate (P=0.0240, ANOVA with repeated measurements) was observed in the juice treatment whereas there were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the two treatments. For orange juice, a small decrease in mean Cmax was observed compared with water (P=0.0218, ANOVA) with the ratio being 0.86, but there was no significant difference in AUC0-24h between the two treatments. No marked differences were observed in tmax and t1/2. Oral pranidipine administration with orange juice did not affect heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures or other parameters for safety evaluation.
Conclusions: Oral co-administration with grapefruit juice and pranidipine was associated with increased bioavailability and changed the pharmacodynamics of pranidipine, particularly with regard to heart rate. Orange juice intake with pranidipine did not markedly affect the pharmacokinetics and no clinically significant changes were observed in the pharmacodynamics and safety evaluation.

Bailey DG, Malcolm J, Arnold O, Spence JD
Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998 Aug;46(2):101-10

The novel finding that grapefruit juice can markedly augment oral drug bioavailability was based on an unexpected observation from an interaction study between the dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, felodipine, and ethanol in which grapefruit juice was used to mask the taste of the ethanol. Subsequent investigations showed that grapefruit juice acted by reducing presystemic felodipine metabolism through selective post-translational down regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) expression in the intestinal wall. Since the duration of effect of grapefruit juice can last 24 h, repeated juice consumption can result in a cumulative increase in felodipine AUC and Cmax. The high variability of the magnitude of effect among individuals appeared dependent upon inherent differences in enteric CYP3A4 protein expression such that individuals with highest baseline CYP3A4 had the highest proportional increase. At least 20 other drugs have been assessed for an interaction with grapefruit juice. Medications with innately low oral bioavailability because of substantial presystemic metabolism mediated by CYP3A4 appear affected by grapefruit juice. Clinically relevant interactions seem likely for most dihydropyridines, terfenadine, saquinavir, cyclosporin, midazolam, triazolam and verapamil and may also occur with lovastatin, cisapride and astemizole. The importance of the interaction appears to be influenced by individual patient susceptibility, type and amount of grapefruit juice and administration-related factors. Although in vitro findings support the flavonoid, naringin, or the furanocoumarin, 6',7'- dihydroxybergamottin, as being active ingredients, a recent investigation indicated that neither of these substances made a major contribution to grapefruit juice-drug interactions in humans.

Sullivan DM, Ford MA, Boyden TW
Am J Health Syst Pharm 1998 Aug 1;55(15):1581-3

The effect if any of prepared frozen grapefruit juice on prothrombin times (PTs) in patients undergoing stabilized warfarin therapy was studied. Patients receiving low-intensity warfarin therapy (targeted International Normalized Ratio [INR], 2-3) who had two consecutive baseline PTs within 10% of each other were recruited. Patients who regularly consumed grapefruit juice or alcohol or who were taking drugs known to interact with grapefruit juice were excluded. A one-week supply of freshly prepared frozen grapefruit juice in individual 8-oz containers was given to all the subjects, who were told to drink the entire contents of on container three times a day for one week. PTs were measured and INRs calculated on the day before grapefruit juice ingestion began (day 0) and a days 2, 6, and 8. Ten men (mean age, 66 years) were enrolled; one withdrew because of diarrhea. Compliance in consuming the juice was reported to range from 85.7% to 100% among patients. There was no significant difference among PT or INR values over the course of the study in any of the nine subjects. Ingestion of grapefruit juice prepared from frozen concentrate did not change PTs in patients treated with warfarin.

Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Backman JT, Lamberg TS, Neuvonen PJ
Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998 Dec;64(6):655-60

Background: Buspirone has a low oral bioavailability because of extensive first-pass metabolism. The effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered buspirone is not known.
Methods: In a randomized, 2-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took either 200 mL double-strength grapefruit juice or water 3 times a day for 2 days. On day 3, each subject ingested 10 mg buspirone with either 200 mL grapefruit juice or water, and an additional 200 mL was ingested 1/2 hour and 1 1/2 hours after buspirone administration. Timed blood samples were collected up to 12 hours after ingestion, and the effects of buspirone were measured with 6 psychomotor tests up to 8 hours after ingestion.
Results: Grapefruit juice increased the mean peak plasma concentration of buspirone 4.3-fold (range, 2-fold to 15.6-fold; P < .01) and the mean area under the plasma buspirone concentration-time curve 9.2-fold (range, 3-fold to 20.4-fold; P < .01). The time of the peak concentration (tmax) of buspirone increased from 0.75 to 3 hours (P < .01), and the elimination half-life (t1/2) was slightly increased (P < .01) by grapefruit juice. A significant increase in the pharmacodynamic effects of buspirone by grapefruit juice was seen only in subjective overall drug effect (P < .01).
Conclusions: Grapefruit juice considerably increased plasma buspirone concentrations. The probable mechanism of this interaction is delayed gastric emptying and inhibition of the cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism of buspirone caused by grapefruit juice. Concomitant use of buspirone and at least large amounts of grapefruit juice should be avoided.

Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ
Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998 Nov;64(5):477-83

Background: Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering agent that is metabolized through CYP3A4. We studied the effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered simvastatin.
Methods: In a randomized, 2-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took either 200 mL double-strength grapefruit juice or water 3 times a day for 2 days. On day 3, each subject ingested 60 mg simvastatin with either 200 mL grapefruit juice or water, and an additional 200 mL was ingested 1/2 and 1 1/2 hours after simvastatin administration. Serum concentrations of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and those of active (naive) and total (after hydrolysis) 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors by a radioenzyme inhibition assay.
Results: Grapefruit juice increased the mean peak serum concentration (Cmax) of unchanged simvastatin about 9-fold (range, 5.1-fold to 31.4-fold; P < .01) and the mean area under the serum simvastatin concentration-time curve [AUC(0-infinity)] 16-fold (range, 9.0-fold to 37.7-fold; P < .05). The mean Cmax and AUC(0-infinity) of simvastatin acid were both increased about 7-fold (P < .01). Grapefruit juice increased the mean AUC(0-infinity) of active and total HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors 2.4-fold (P < .01) and 3.6-fold (P < .01), respectively. The time of the peak concentration of active and total HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors was increased by grapefruit juice (P < .05).
Conclusion: Grapefruit juice greatly increased serum concentrations of simvastatin and simvastatin acid and, to a lesser extent, those of active and total HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. The probable mechanism of this interaction was inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism of simvastatin by grapefruit juice in the small intestine. Concomitant use of grapefruit juice and simvastatin, at least in large amounts, should be avoided, or the dose of simvastatin should be greatly reduced.

Garg SK, Kumar N, Bhargava VK, Prabhakar SK
Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998 Sep;64(3):286-8

Objective: To examine the effect of grapefruit juice on the bioavailability of carbamazepine in patients with epilepsy.
Methods: This was a randomized crossover study consisting of 2 phases. Ten patients with epilepsy who had received therapy with 200 mg carbamazepine 3 times a day for the previous 3 to 4 weeks participated. They were given either grapefruit juice or 300 mL water at 8 am along with 200 mg carbamazepine. Each treatment was separated by 2 days; subjects continued to receive carbamazepine therapy during the 2-day period. On both occasions, blood samples were collected at different time intervals between 0 to 8 hours. Carbamazepine levels were estimated by reversed-phase HPLC technique.
Results: Compared with water, grapefruit significantly increased the steady peak concentration (6.55 versus 9.20 microgram/mL), trough concentration (4.51 versus 6.28 microgram/mL), and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (43.99 versus 61.95 micrograms.h/mL) of carbamazepine. No significant effect was found in the time to reach peak plasma concentration.
Conclusion: Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of carbamazepine by inhibiting CYP3A4 enzymes in gut wall and in the liver.

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