Stem cells are cells which can not be differentiated from each other. But, these cells can be renewed and can be developed for three different types of tissue minimum. There are embryonic which are derived from embryos on early stage. These have the ability to differentiate adult cells. Furthermore, these cells can behave in a steady manner under a microscopic view. But, they are less predictable when cells are injected into a living body. Hence, their use is regarded as controversial though thy might help in some laboratory research.
Mature stem cells can be found in animals which are post-fetal. For example, there are hematopoietic (red or white blood cells) and mesenchymal which can be found in different types of tissue, tendon, including bone, cartilage, ligament, liver, heart and nerves. Also, these adult cells comprise bone marrow, brain tissue, fat and muscles.
A stem cells therapy uses different categories of cells like allogeneic, autologous and xenogeneic. Allogeneic are collected from a donor of the same species of animal. Autologous are arranged from the same animal and xenogeneic cells are collected from donors of other species. The therapy is used not only to differentiate tissues but also for healing. The healing process is done by applying a therapy where over 30 types of growth factors are produced to stimulate the entire process. A therapy concentrates repairing a damaged tissue by recruiting local stem cells systematically.
Stem cells are injected in to a body to move by some tissue signals and they are based on neural, chemical and mechanical changes. When a therapy is used for a healing process than tiny amount of cells is injected in to an injured area first. This is because if a large number of stem cells enter then that may create interference with a healing process. The therapy is performed by using cells in amount which is less than half of the novel tissue formed inside the injured area. The remaining part of the repairing work is performed by the other cells.
A therapy is used considering the factors like response of the age of the animal, levels of free radicals in an animal's body and the health of the animal to accept the therapy. For example, the therapy can be successfully used on horses to repair injuries cause by ligament damages.