Social Science

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Social science is the study of the society and the man behind its invention was Auguste Comte who became interested in studying the changes that were taking place in society after French and Industrial revolution. Social sciences concern people’s relationships and interactions with one another. During the French revolution France system changed dramatically and people changed their positions; aristocrats lost their positions and peasants who were in low positions in society rose into more powerful and influential positions. In Industrial revolution some people abandoned their agricultural activities and they moved to the city to look for jobs in the factories. They were oppressed by their employees for they were forced to work long hours and sometimes they did not receive their payment. Comte looked keenly into the changes that were brought forth by both revolutions and he felt that the social systems that were existing during that time were not addressing chaos and upheavals he saw around him.(Frankfurt,1998)..

He decided to come up with anew science and he named it sociology which comes from a Latin word socius which means companion or being with others. To understand the society in a better position,Comte argued that certain procedures have to be followed and such procedures are known as scientific methods. These are systematic and specific procedures that are used to test theories in psychology, natural sciences and other fields.  By use of sociology, the society can be made a better place for people and to inspire social reforms. Comte also believed in positivism, which is the application of the scientific method to the analysis of society

Sociology evolved differently depending on where it was taught and who was teaching it. There are two major types of sociology that emerged, quantitative and qualitative sociology. Most of the universities in the world use both qualitative and quantitative methods for information as not one method is necessarily better than the other. Qualitative sociology is concerned with trying to obtain an accurate picture of a group and how it operates in the world. Small and his group from the University of Chicago tied to study how immigration was affecting the city and its residents. A large number of people were migrating to the United States from a variety of countries. Sociologists were fascinated by the social changes they saw taking place and began conducting qualitative studies which involved personal interviews and observations of ethnic rituals and ceremonies.(Diederick,2003)

Quantitative sociology relied on statistical analysis to analyze experience and trend that people took. Some researchers talked to the people and observed them but many preferred to remain within the confines and quantify their data suitable for statistical manipulation. Apart from the two types of sociology, there are other types of sociology, they include; anthropology, political science, psychology and economics

Anthropology- this usually concerns individual cultures in a society but not a society as a whole. It is holistic science of man and it deals with the integration of different aspects of humanities, human biology and social sciences.

Political Science this concerns government of various societies and it considers the kind of government a society is having. It also considers how the leader of this society attains positions of power within a particular government. It also considers the relations of people in a society to whatever form of government they have.

Psychology is the study of human brain and how it functions, considering issues such as memory, dreams, learning and perception. Psychology always takes an individual out of his/her social circumstances and examines her mental processes taking place.

Economics. This focuses on the production and distribution of society’s goods and services. Economists study why a society chooses to produce what it does, how money is exchanged, and how people interact and cooperate to produce goods.

There have been certain principles which have been recognized and accepted in the social sciences, this are; effect of scale and agglomeration economics, transfer costs etc and all are integrated into a simplified model of world hierarchical structure. Vectors are used to illustrate hierarchy of places and services. Service areas of the nodes conforming to the size and scale most efficient and appropriate for specific activities and functions are illustrated involving, for example, steel production at major regional primary nodes and elementary schools in the smallest service areas.  Presence of political boundaries or other barriers inhibits optimal spatial organization, opportunity costs are therefore introduced which detract from potential benefits. Recognition of the social science framework in which a system of world law should ideally operate must be complemented by identification of adjudicative criteria for balancing conflicting goals such as participation, efficiency and equality; therefore some measures of participation and analytic frameworks for reconciling goals are suggested.

People with training in sociology pursue a variety of different career and research paths. Because “society” is such a broad field of study, a background in sociology helps support dozens of different career choices. What follows are several broad areas in which sociologists frequently choose to apply their skills and interests. People need to understand that science is a religion that is already established.(Frankfurt,1998). Most of the people who have influence from science have more or less the concept of authority. There are two concepts; admiration toward the established "authority" of science and the yearning for becoming an authority oneself. These two are connected and complement each other.

The privilege concept does not only hamper man’s direct exploration of truth but also replace his veneration of God. Through their true nature people can learn the truth of the universe and learn the principles of the cosmos by continuous cultivation of morality. On the other hand, the concept of authority has obliterated this; within the science authorities are not only the symbols of who control the scientific truth ;generally they are also in charge of research money and they control others explorations; this means that authorities have the control over the others  lives .(Pyburn,1998)

Authority is the source of this structure and organization of science and people minds give up their consciousness of directly exploring truth on their own. Scientific authorities are regarded as authorities of life and that nobody will ever remain” nobody”. This is because people's real thinking is clouded by this concept of authority, and they have completely lost their own comprehension. Since it's dangerous for any opinion to conflict with the authority's opinion, what people can do in science is merely do some small "repairing" around the authority's ideas.

Science also has great influence on social structure and state, many people believes that freedom, equality and law as very holy and therefore they conclude that science is the most holy. Before the birth of science, people used to believe the truths from the bible because at first man believed in God.  Science does not only repel and negate man's faith in God and orthodox morality; it limits man's way of thinking within the boundary of experimental science. Furthermore, it fundamentally destroys man's social structure. Science has brought to man many errors as he tries so many concepts that are related to science some of are not even proven. They don’t see the truth about science at all, and cannot see the devastation, suppression and damage it has done to man's true nature Top of Form.
The social sciences are at times criticized as being less rigorous than other natural sciences, in that they are seen as being less empirical in their methods. This claim has been made in the so-called Science Wars. This is most commonly made when comparing social sciences to wholly different fields such as physics, chemistry or biology in which corroboration of the hypothesis is far more incisive with regard to data observed from specifically designed experiments. Some physicists have expressed their view that social sciences do not qualify as science. Characterized as observational, the social sciences explanations for cause-effect relationships are largely subjective. A limited degree of freedom is available in designing the factor setting for a particular observational study. (Garry 2003)
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