- Metabolic bone disease restricts a bird's movement. Limbs become distorted and deformed.
- A radiograph showing decreased bone density, and possible fractures suggest metabolic bone disease. Blood tests showing a low level of calcium and a high level of phosphate confirms the diagnosis.
- A malfunctioning uropygial gland in birds can cause low calcium levels. Also, lack of sun exposure can lead to reduced calcium levels.
- Calcitonin-salmon and calcium carbonate supplements can be given to normalize calcium levels. Full spectrum ultraviolet therapy aids in the production of vitamin D.
- Feed birds a varied diet. Avoid a diet which solely contains foods high in oxalates, fats and tannins, because they affect calcium metabolism.
- Ensure the cage or enclosure does not have glass or plastic which filters sunlight. Expose birds to direct sunlight for at least one hour a week.