Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic year, the holy month of fasting ordained by the Koran for all adult Muslims of the Islamic faith. According to the Koran, the fast of Ramadan has been instituted so that believers "may cultivate piety"; this particular month was designated because it was the month during which Muhammad received the first of the Koran's revelations.
"Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (Between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful." (2:2:185)
The fast during Ramadan begins each day at dawn, when the "white thread becomes distinct from the black thread," and ends immediately at sunset. During the fast Muslims are forbidden to eat, drink, or smoke. Before retirement each night, special congregational prayers are offered in which long passages of the Koran are recited. The night between the 26th and 27th days of Ramadan, on which the first revelation occurred, is called the Night of Determination, during which, according to the Koran, God determines the course of the world for the following year. In Ramadan, certain incidents happen, where Muslims have victory on other nations and political systems, for example, the Battle of Badr 624, the Battle of Ditch (al-Khandaq) 627, the battle of Tabuk 630, the Conquest of Makka, 640 AD. the Conquest of Al-Andalus – Tariq bib Ziad-710 AD, , Battle of Hittin – Saladin returned Jerusalem from crusades on the morning of the night of destiny (Laylatu al-Qadr) -1187 AD, the Battle of Ain Jalut-1260 AD, Muslims defeated Mongols, and the Battle of Ramadan War- or Yom Kippur War against Israel, known as Operation Badr, 10 Ramadan-October 6, 1973. However, the day after the end of Ramadan is called the Fast-Breaking and is celebrated with special prayers and festivities called, the junior Eid, or Eid al-Fitr (fast-breaking).(393 words) www.hasanyahya.com