- Minnesota's natural plants consist of aquatic plants, ferns and mosses, trees and shrubs and wildflowers. The diverse plant species are from different land areas, like prairies and wetlands. The state also has a number of rare plant species, including endangered species like blunt-lobed grapefern and dwarf trout lily. The state also hosts a number of native plant communities, which are a group of plants that "interact with each other and with their environment in ways not greatly altered by modern human activity or by introduced organisms," according to Minnesota's Department of Natural Resources. Some forms of these native communities are oak savannas or pine forests.
- The wildlife of Minnesota consists of birds, insects, fish, mammals, reptiles and amphibians. With different ecosystems, a variety of animal species can live in Minnesota. The state has more than 400 different species of animals and dozens of rare species, including endangered birds like Henslow's sparrow and endangered frogs like the northern cricket frog. The state takes care to conserve these species and protect their habitats. The mammals of Minnesota consist of small animals like badgers and weasels as well as moose, black bears and bobcats. The reptiles and amphibians consist of dozens of species of frogs and toads, turtles, snakes and lizards.
- The soil of Minnesota contains fossils, gems, rocks and minerals. The most common area of the state to find fossils is in northeastern Minnesota inside Precambrian iron formations. Some fossils found in this area are over 2 billion years old. The fossils are of small single-celled organisms from when shallow seas covered that area of the state. Some multicelled organisms from the ancient seas can be found in southeastern Minnesota. Hobbyists in the state can search for ancient fossils or the Lake Superior agate, a popular stone commonly found throughout Minnesota. The rock is polished with stripes throughout the stone in red, orange and yellow and is found along the eastern border of Minnesota.
- To preserve the natural land resources of Minnesota, several departments set up regulations for hunting and fishing and require licenses and permits for these outdoor activities. Along with regulations, several organizations develop conservation efforts to preserve natural resources. Minnesota's Department of Natural Resources has areas marked off as state parks and forests where hunting is not allowed. The Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources is a 20-member board that works to protect Minnesota's water bodies from sediment, enhance wildlife habitat and protect wetlands.